we had a similar problem. I managed to write my own Stripe plugin, it is running without problems since July 1st (when we had to abandon the PayPal Direct ship), we made over 50 transactions since then without a problem.
Our plugin has not yet the fancy functions like refund, recurring payments, just the plain vanilla charging. (we can still do refunds on the Stripe dashboard manually, so we are not missing any important feature)
Ours is a PCI compliant token solution
The main problem we solved that our plugin is PCI Compliant, it does not require the customer to enter card data on our site. It runs the Stripe script on the customer's browser and directly sends sensible data to Stripe, we are using only the tokens and not touching card data at all.
FYI: Nowadays if you implement any solution that allows customers to enter their credit card numbers directly on YOUR site, you will have to make and keep up a PCI DSS 3.2 certification of your company, server, employees, etc. on a Fort Knox level. This is becoming less and less feasible for a small company, so I definitely suggest to go for the no-PCI-hassle token solution.
Our plugin is not ready for sharing/selling in the current state, we were in a hurry, spared on the settings/configuration features, so now it has some hard-wired customization (like not configurable texts, logos, etc.) If you are still interested some time later I can spare some time to tidy up the code.